Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

This condition, which usually occurs in adults 55 and older, is an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. The ventricles are a system of large, fluid-filled open spaces inside the brain. Too much CSF in the ventricles can distort the brain’s shape. It can make the brain susceptible to injury.

About Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Cerebrospinal fluid is a colorless fluid that bathes the central nervous system. It carries nutrients and waste to and from cells. It also absorbs shocks and regulates pressure.

How NPH Develops

As we age, the brain tissue gradually weakens and shrinks, exerting less of its own pressure. This atrophied brain can allow the ventricles to swell with CSF fluid, which distorts the brain’s shape without causing an elevation in normal brain pressure.


One of the first signs of NPH is difficulty walking – people with the condition typically develop a shuffling, stumbling, hesitant gait. It often then progresses to incontinence and dementia. The symptoms are sometimes confused with those of Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.


Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus is treated with a surgically-implanted shunt. The shunt allows the excess fluid to drain and relieves the distortion caused by swollen ventricles.

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This condition is caused by an increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid (commonly called CSF) in the brain’s ventricles. The ventricles are a system of large, fluid-filled open spaces inside the brain. Too much CSF in the ventricles can elevate pressure in the skull. It can damage delicate brain tissue.

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Pediatric Brain Tumors

A brain tumor is a lump of tissue caused by abnormal and/or uncontrolled cell growth. 

Primary Tumors

Primary tumors start in the brain cells, the brain membranes, the pineal or pituitary glands or in the cranial nerves. Primary tumors can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Both types can cause severe problems.

Metastatic Tumors

Metastatic tumors form in another part of the body, often the breast or lungs, and then spread to the brain. Secondary tumors are cancerous and most commonly strike adults.


Because the brain is such a complex organ, brain tumors can affect the mind and body in many different ways. They can cause physical problems, such as severe headaches, nausea, or seizures, and they can cause behavioral changes, such as confusion and impulsiveness. The symptoms depend on the type, size and location of the tumor.


Brain tumors can be treated with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery. Treatment options depend on the type, size and location of the tumor and the age, size and condition of the patient.

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